Whether you or a loved one gets cancer, it is critical for you to be informed about the basics of cancer in order to get a high level of understanding about the disease. Being well informed will allow you to ask the right questions to the medical professionals treating you. It will also empower you and your family to make the best decisions possible along side with your doctor. Educating yourself is one of the best things you can do to help you better understand your treatment options, plus it will help you cope through the healing journey up ahead.
Cancer is not one disease, but many diseases that occur in different areas of the body. Each type of cancer is characterized by the uncontrolled growth of cells. Under normal conditions, cell reproduction is carefully controlled by the body. However, these controls can malfunction, resulting in abnormal cell growth and the development of a lump, mass, or tumor. Some cancers involving the blood and blood-forming organs do not form tumors but circulate through other tissues where they grow.
A tumor may be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Cells from cancerous tumors can spread throughout the body. This process, called metastasis, occurs when cancer cells break away from the original tumor and travel in the circulatory or lymphatic systems until they are lodged in a small capillary network in another area of the body. Common locations of metastasis are the bones, lungs, liver, and central nervous system.
The type of cancer refers to the organ or area of the body where the cancer first occurred. Cancer that has metastasized to other areas of the body is named for the part of the body where it originated. For example, if breast cancer has spread to the bones, it is called “metastatic breast cancer” not bone cancer.
Although every patient and family member wants to know the answer to this question, it is not fully understood as to the reason certain people develop cancer. There are some known carcinogens (materials that can cause cancer), but many are still undiscovered. Unfortunately the medical community still does do not know why some people who are exposed to carcinogens get cancer and others do not. The length and amount of exposure are believed to affect the chances of developing a disease. For example, as exposure to cigarette smoking increases, the chance of developing lung cancer also increases. Genetics also plays an important role in whether an individual develops cancer.
Following your diagnosis of cancer, your reaction may be one of shock and disbelief. If you have been told that chemotherapy, hormone therapy, or radiation therapy are an important part of your treatment, many unpleasant images may come to mind. As you move beyond that initial shock to begin the journey of surviving your cancer, you have many good reasons to be optimistic. Medicine has made—and continues to make—great strides in treating prostate cancer and in making cancer treatment more tolerable, both physically and emotionally.
No one would call cancer a normal experience, but by proactively managing aspects of your treatment, you can maintain a sense of normalcy in your life. Fighting cancer is not a challenge you face alone. It’s a team effort that involves family, friends, and your healthcare team. Don’t overlook the strength that can come from having your support network by your side.